SGML and XML are metalanguages - languages for describing other languages - which let users design their own customized markup languages for limitless different types of documents.
SGML is very large, powerful, and complex. It has been in heavy industrial and commercial use for over a decade, and there is a significant body of expertise and software to go with it. XML is a lightweight cut-down version of SGML which keeps enough of its functionality to make it useful but removes all the optional features which make SGML too complex to program for in a Web environment.
HTML is just one of the SGML or XML applications, the one most frequently used in the Web.
The Web is becoming much more than a static library. Increasingly, users are accessing the Web for 'Web pages' that aren't actually on the shelves. Instead, the pages are generated dynamically from information available to the Web server. That information can come from data bases on the Web server, from the site owner's enterprise databases, or even from other Web sites.
And that dynamic information needn't be served up raw. It can be analyzed, extracted, sorted, styled, and customized to create a personalized Web experience for the end-user. To coin a phrase, web pages are evolving into web services.
For this kind of power and flexibility, XML is the markup language of choice. You can see why by comparing XML and HTML. Both are based on SGML - but the difference is immediately apparent:
<p>Apple Titanium Notebook
<br>Local Computer Store
Both of these may look the same in your browser, but the XML data is smart data. HTML tells how the data should look, but XML tells you what it means. With XML, your browser knows there is a product, and it knows the model, dealer, and price. From a group of these it can show you the cheapest product or closest dealer without going back to the server.
Unlike HTML, with XML you create your own tags, so they describe exactly what you need to know. Because of that, your client-side applications can access data sources anywhere on the Web, in any format. New "middle-tier" servers sit between the data sources and the client, translating everything into your own task-specific XML.
But XML data isn't just smart data, it's also a smart document. That means when you display the information, the model name can be a different font from the dealer name, and the lowest price can be highlighted in green. Unlike HTML, where text is just text to be rendered in a uniform way, with XML text is smart, so it can control the rendition.
And you don't have to decide whether your information is data or documents; in XML, it is always both at once. You can do data processing or document processing or both at the same time. With that kind of flexibility, it's no wonder that we're starting to see a new Web of smart, structured information. It's a "Semantic Web" in which computers understand the meaning of the data they share.
A DTD is a formal description in XML Declaration Syntax of a particular type of document. It sets out what names are to be used for the different types of element, where they may occur, and how they all fit together.
The XML Specification explicitly says XML uses ISO 10646, the international standard 31-bit character repertoire which covers most human (and some non-human) languages. This is currently congruent with Unicode and is planned to be superset of Unicode.
In brief, the protocol functions as follows. An HTTP message is passed by an ICAP client to the ICAP server. The server processes the message and sends a reply back to the customer. An ICAP client can be both a Web proxy server or even a Web client. An ICAP server can support services that are expressly requested by customers.
As an instance of the protocol’s use, envision the following situation. An ICAP server implements an access control service : two services, and an antivirus service. Hosts inside a network have access to the Internet via a Web proxy server.
Based on the above situation, the access control service supplied by the ICAP server checks whether a Web client can connect to a Website requested by the client. More particularly, the Web client sends an HTTP request to the proxy server. The access control service of the ICAP server checks if the customer can see or not the site. Eventually, the ICAP server either enables the proxy server to continue with the petition or otherwise, reacts with an informative HTTP message, which is redirected to the Web client by the proxy server.
The service, on the flip side, checks whether information passed through the proxy server are impacted with a virus. The ICAP server scans the incoming information for viruses. The ICAP server responds with a Web page telling the user about the difficulty, if a virus is detected. In order to improve the checks it’s best to send the test virus from a variety of sources. So for example you could buy a US IP and generate the test virus from an American server, in order to protect the perimeter.
The ICAP protocol is easily extended so that it could control other kinds of info rather than just HTTP requests and answers. For instance, it might be expanded to manage email messages. The format of an e-mail message is just like the format of an HTTP reply. In general, every object or piece of data can be called an HTTP object. For instance, a simple file can be enclosed into an item that contains the real content of the file in addition to file descriptors (Content – Length, Content – Type ) in the and Day, Content Language, kind of HTTP headers.
Google was the very first search engine to introduce sitemaps with the Google XML sitemap format in 2005. As the internet evolved, so the standard evolved with all the search engines and it soon became the standard for all these search giants on how to complete a crawl of a website and of course the subsequent indexing of the site. Essentially an XML sitemap is merely an XML file containing a listing of a site that includes URLs and some info about those URLs. A site can have multiple sitemaps all stored in multiple directories. To assist search engines detect the various sitemaps an organization may have, the locations of the XML file are detailed at the end of a site’s robots.txt file. Make sure that the search engine can access all these pages using a standard TCP/IP connection.
An XML sitemap is ideal for sites where some pages are updated more often or where some pages are more significant than many others. For instance, a local company might update its opening hours or product lists quite often, while infrequently updating the page describing the history of its company. In that case, the webmaster would need to notify search engines when it does its ordinary site crawling to put a higher priority in the hours page. Likewise, the webmaster can put an increased importance on the hours pages or perhaps on other pages with particular content, so the search engine’s site indexing ranks those pages greater.
Sitemaps should comprise the date a page was last altered, how often that page changes and that page’s priority. The last modified date is merely the calendar date the page last changed. The precedence is a value from zero to 1 with a default of 0.5. Writing out this advice for each page isn’t challenging, but it could be boring. Using an XML sitemap generator can help decrease the quantity of work a webmaster has to do when creating the sitemap. While other web sites provide offline generators several web sites provide an on-line sitemap generator.
In case your site features many thousands of web pages, you must utilize a professional sitemap creator instead. It can save you a huge amount of time and in some cases your sanity! They’re not expensive in fact I used one in Paris for many years which was completely free although it was restricted to French IP addresses only, so I had to use a proxy in France like this.
Although a sitemap is frequently overlooked, it is an essential resource which helps search engines understand sites. Sitemaps can be basic or complicated, conditioned upon the site’s size and demands.
Some people think that the key to saving would be having the largest amount of money to start with. However, this is simply not the case. Very often, people with a lot of money have many expenses to manage. They spend more money than the person that does not have very much, this can leave them with little or nothing to save. The best way to make sure that you are saving for the future would be to simply take advantage of an interest calculator that would allow you to decide the value of putting your money in different places. It is likely that you are getting a lower interest rate than you would like by putting your money into your current savings account.
However, you would never be able to determine this if you are not making use of an interest calculator that would give you this understanding. After you learn how much of a return you are getting on your investment, you may become interested in putting your money somewhere else. Before you decide how you would like to do this, you want to use a calculator in order to ensure that you are making a great financial decision. Saving is not all about making money. Instead, it is about learning to take the time to make sure that you are saving correctly when it comes to your future. If you take this approach, you will be very happy with the nest egg that you build in the future.
The new standards-based one-of-a-kind payment calculator has recently been launched. It’s name? The PaymentBot.
When you want to calculate your amortization rates or any other kind of loan payments, it is always good to use the right payment calculator. In this era of the internet revolution, there are plenty of online calculators for you to select from. What matters however is finding websites, which have calculators that are not programmed to give you the wrong computations. Sites like paymentbot.org, which are dedicated to providing accurate information to this effect, will come in handy. You will not have to worry about a bias toward or against certain businesses.
Another caution that must be observed is accuracy. When it comes to amortization calculations and rates, even one inaccurate figure in the PaymentBot calculator will affect the whole result significantly. You have to crosscheck each single amount that you input to avoid this kind of error. Accuracy in terms of calculations will ensure that you avoid complications down the line when it comes to making your loan repayments. This way, you will avoid defaulting and dealing with the negative repercussions of that move.
It is also important for you to understand the individual terms that are used to define the details of your loans or deposit. Some of the PaymentBot terms, that are used in such transactions usually sound similar although they may describe different values. It is up to you to ask about what each term means and what context it is suited for. Research is the best way to understand these issues before you start inputting values into the payment calculator.
It never hurts to use two or more different online payment calculators just to be sure of the values you are getting after computations as long as they are reliable. An amortization schedule based on accurate results will go a long way in enabling you smoothen your financial life thus leaving you stress free.
In today’s world, a cellphone has become one of the necessities of the modern professional. In fact according to a survey done in 2012, 85% of Americans own a cellphone and half the number own a Smartphone. With this said, you can see why it’s easier for people to browse the internet using their gadgets. Most cellphones if not all are capable of accessing the internet and downloading data such as music videos, photos and songs. Due to the ability of the iPhone, many people are trying to change their websites so that they can be compatible with mobile users.
What are the benefits of html coding for your website? Well, with the majority of people using phones that can browse, they will tend to enjoy browsing when in a commuter train, when in the bus to work or when travelling. In the past, most cellphones used a technology known as WAP and this may not be of any use today though there are some cellphones that still use the technology. You can still use it to run your website on safe mode for emergencies but stick to html coding.
What do you need to make your website iPhone friendly? First you may decide to create a completely separate website for mobile use or may decide to tweak the one you have in order for it to be accessed with a Free iPhone 5 .Here are Quick pointers when you are coding your website for iPhone compatibility. First of all make the interface feel a little bit like an iPhone application, make navigation easy and use large icons as the iPhone is a touch screen. Finally, make sure you reduce the graphics and other things that may lead to slow loading of your page. Most people will use Wi-Fi when browsing and if your graphics are too heavy, they might give up on loading the page as well.
We all think of programmers as relatively the same thing. Young white men, who sit behind their desk all day without a clue about what goes on in the outside world.
That impression is slowly changing though, as time as gone by we’ve been graced by the idea of the “brogrammer” as well as socially conscious programmers as well. To that end Berkeley High School is hosting a day long coding session this weekend where programmers can get the city some of what it thinks it could use, without having to pay anything more than a $5k grand prize.
Living in a world of computer age would make your life easy. However, there are some people who look it as a bad effect onto man’s life. Yes, this is because computer age might domain the lives of the people. This might be true that it actually depends on how we use these technologies. Of course, you as the inventor and the person who created the technology then you should not let it domain you. Let us not look the technology as bad in here; we try to look this as a helpful development in the society and or as human development. Tyroler Kostume will let you understand how technologies helpful to man’s life. You must realize that these high technologies would not domain the lives of the people if you never let it to happen. Yes, this is true. There are people who are letting technologies domain their lives like the invention of personal computers. Let your personal customers be useful for important reasons and purposes and never let it domain your life. Young age these days use personal computers for entertainment. This is actually true, it is not bad to let your personal computers domain your life like it would now be harmful to your health. Sitting in front of you computers might cause health-problem and you are the one who can solve this and not the other people.
Bear in mind that everything that is used many or over is bad. You don’t let this computer be as the culprit of your health-problem but instead let it remains as your entertainment. It is not denying that these technologies might put our lives be at risk but you must keep in your mind that these are only stuffs, materials that are invented by man, use it for appropriate way and know your limitations. The correct usage of this computer age would surely make your daily activities at ease and this is true. It doesn’t just help you to make your work at ease but it is nice to use these advance technology today. Another thing is the instructional technologies at school. Indeed, it is a big advantages that school use to adapt these new instructional technologies to make their teaching style more innovative. A modern kind on way of teaching as their materials in the classroom makes the students interested on the lesson. Aside from that, they would find it modern and that’s the reason why their attention will be catch easily.
Tyroler Kostume have been more and more popular these days, it doesn’t only make teacher’s teaching method unique but advance as well. Technologies have been having a name in the world of modernity. Aside from proving that the world becomes more advance, the human development will be touched in here as well. Yes, technologies might be not good in man’s life as it will make the people lazy but let us not allow this to happen. Let us make technologies helpful to us not on making as lazy but on making us proved to the world that we are intelligent on this kind of innovation that are contributed in the world.
Lost packets is one of the biggest difficulties for any transport protocol. Sending data across a variety of platforms, switches, hubs and routers is bound to end up with some lost data. Every protocol therefore needs a way of dealing with these lost packets. The congestion avoidance algorithm is one way of dealing with this issue. The algorithm assumes that the packet loss is not caused by any damage to any of the hops in the journey, it therefore focuses on the idea that lost packets are a result of congestion instead. More specifically, congestion which is occuring between the source node and the destination node.
There are two main indicators that packet loss is occuring – timeouts and duplicate ACKS. There are also two primary algorithms in place to help alleviate these situations – Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance. However both these two algorithms, which are completely independent, rely on specific variables to operate effectively. Slwo start requires a threshold size called ssthresh and the congestion algorithm needs a congestion window variable called cwnd. As mentioned these are both independant but in practice when congestion is occurring we nned to both slow transmission rate and use slow start to get the packets flowing again, therefore they are normally implemented together.
The first step is to initialize the variables cwnd=1 segment and ssthresh to 65535 bytes. It’s important to remember that the output routine of TCP never sends more than the minmum of cwnd and the receivers advertised windows. All congestion avoidance does is to instigate from the senders side flow control to restrict the number of packets transmitted. There is also flow control implemented by the receiver based on the advertised windows size.
Then when there is some sign of congestion – duplicate acks or timeouts, slow start is implemented and the sssthresh variable is updated. CWND will rise and fall in reponse to network traffic, it will typically rise when the traffic is flowing freely. So for instance if you’re sending data through a remote device like a France proxy for example, which is losing data or overloaded. The transmission errors will be reflected in the relative sizes of these two variables. These help determine whether we will stay with congestion avoidance or move onto slow start to get traffic moving again.
The BGP protocol is one used by gateways and routers based in different systems. It’s predecessor was called EGP, this protocol actually was used on the ARPANET – the earliest seed of today’s internet. If you’re interested in this, you can find EGP defined in Border Gateway Protocol - RFC 1267.
Any system that runs BGP will supply and receive information from other systems running the protocol. The information as befits a routing protocol is all about networks and how to reach them. The data exchanged will include full paths of autonomous systems and how to reach them, all BGP systems will retransmit any new network information that they receive.
An IP datagram will contain the following information that BGP will use to classify any systems detailed.
A Stub System has only a single connection to another system. As such this will only carry local network traffic.
A multihomed system has connections to many other systems. It won’t however carry any transit traffic.
A Transit system has multiple connections to many other systems. It will allow both local and transit traffic to be distributed.
In fact this is a good way to describe the underlying infrastructure of the internet itself. The topology consists of thousands of these systems with arbitrary connections to one another – some stubs, some multi-homed and transit systems. All these are often described as AS (autonomous systems) connect with each other and exchange routing information using protocols like BGP or EGP for older ones.
The protocol doesn’t include a policy for routing however they can implement policy based routing set up by the administrator. These are set up in configuration files stored on the router – these are used to make routing decisions particularly when multiple routes are available. Unlike other routing protocols which are wildely used like RIP and OSPF – BGP uses TCP as it’s transport protocol.
When two BGP systems communicate they will first establish a TCP connection prior to transferring the entire BGP routing tables which exists on each router. This exchange only happens on the initial connection (or if the router is reset) afterwards only incremental changes are transferred.
BGP is a distance vector protocol which has been known to have some problems. These vector based protocols have been known to cause networking issues on the internet. If you’ve ever had difficulties accessing resources across the internet that you know are up and working – perhaps getting repeated – this video is not available messages, then there is a chance that a distance vector protocol was too blame. To be fair though BGP enumerates the route to each individual destination which is at the heart of the distance vector protocol issues.
Many high tech Japanese rice cookers now use fuzzy logic technology to cook superior rice. This is a computing apporach that does not use traditional Boolean logic but instead uses degrees of truth. Dr. Lotfi Zadeh of the University of California at Berkeley was a champion of this way of thinking.
In practice, it means that rice cookers can think and operate more like human beings. This helps them to make great tasting rice each time they are used. As an example, if not enough water is added, the water will boil off more quickly, therefore the rice cooker will start to overheat. In this case, the fuzzy logic of the rice cooker would make it switch over, more early than it should, to the keep warm setting. In this way, it prevents the rice from burning.
There are a number of different models with this technology on the market today. An advanced Zojirushi rice cooker is the number one choice for many people. They are seen as the market leader in Japan.
Since rice cookers are now exploiting this fuzzy logic technology, they are now able to cook all kinds of rice easily. Users can select harder or softer rice, depending upon their own particular preference. Additionally, most models also have a rice porridge setting. This can be used for rice as well as other grains. Today, advanced rice cookers all people to enjoy the benefits in a practical way, of advanced mathematical models.
SGML and XML are both languages that are used for defining markup languages. More specifically, they are metalanguage formalisms that facilitate the definition of descriptive markup languages for the purpose of electronic information encoding and interchange. SGML and XML support the definition of markup languages that are hardware- and software-independent, as well as application-processing neutral.
SGML is an International Standard, defined in the document ISO 8879:1986. Information Processing - Text and Office Systems - Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), as amended. A key philosophical commitment underlying SGML is separating the representation of information structure and content from information processing specifications. Information objects modeled through an SGML markup language are named and described (using attributes and subelements) in terms of what they are (from a defined perspective) not in terms of how they are to be displayed or otherwise processed.
XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a dialect of SGML that is designed to enable 'generic SGML' to be served, received, and processed on the World Wide Web. XML originated in 1996, as a result of frustration with the deployment of SGML on the Internet. The SGML family of standards that include SGML (the modeling framework), DSSSL (the transformation framework for presentation) and HyTime (the linking and timing framework) are ISO standards that proved difficult to implement and aroused little interest outside of specialist fields of expertise. XML simplified the requirements for implementation, with the specific intention of enabling deployment of markup applictions on the Internet.
Both SGML and XML supported by a suite of companion standards addressing such features as transformation, presentation, linking, and event triggering. A broad range of commercial and public-domain software has been developed to assist users with markup implementation.